Ever since Carl Linnaeus started naming plants in the 1700's scientists have been grouping them into genera, families and larger groups. This study is called taxonomy. With Charles Darwin's insight that all organisms are related by the process of biological evolution, scientists have tried to make their taxonomy show the evolutionary relationships between plants, or the phylogeny of the plants. For most of the centuries since Linnaeus scientists have had only the shapes and structures of plants, especially the flowers, to inform their taxonomic hypotheses. In the last few decades, however, scientists have been able to look directly at the DNA, or genetic information that tells the plant how to build its leaves, stems, flowers and fruits. Comparing the DNA provides more powerful information about the relatiionships between plants. In most cases the DNA evidence has supported the taxonomy based on structure, but sometimes it has shown that these classifications were incorrect. A common, if greatly exaggerated lament among students of natural history today is that all the names and relationships we learned have been changed.

The index below lists the plants of Wildwood Park in phylogenetic order, which reflects the evolutionary relationships between them. This index is based on current understanding, and may change in the future. The family assignments, as well as the scientific names are based on The Plant List maintained by the Kew and Missouri Botanical Gardens. The overall classification is based primarily on the classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, a committee of botanists charged with reaching agreement on the broad relationships between plants. It is probably already out of date as new evidence has led to modification of the consensus. This page will be of particular interest and usefulness to students of botany, but it is hoped that others will find it of interest as well.

When descriptive pages are available for the plants, they are linked to the scientific name. The families below are not always the same as the families currently used on the plants' descriptive pages, which were assigned based on the information at hand when the pages were written. Eventually discrepancies will be fixed, we hope.




Common in the Park, but poorly studied.


CHAROPHYTA -- Stoneworts

  Characeae  Stonewort Family
    Chara communis,  Common Stonewort

HEPATOPHYTA -- Liverworts

  Conocephalaceae  Snake Liverwort Family
    Conocephalum conicum,  Scented or Snake Liverwort


  Bryaceae  Bryum Family
    Rhodobryum ontariense,  Rose Moss
  Many others in the Park, but poorly studied.

VASCULAR PLANTS -- Plants with water-conducting tissues



Aspleniaceae  Spleenwort Family
  Asplenium platyneuron,  Ebony Spleenwort
Asplenium rhizophyllum,  Walking Fern
Asplenium ruta-muraria,  Wall Rue
Cystopteridaceae  Wood Fern Family
  Cystopteris bulbifera,  Common Bulblet Fern
Dryopteridaceae  Wood Fern Family
  Dryopteris marginalis,  Marginal or Evergreen Wood Fern
Polystichum acrostichoides,  Christmas Fern
Equisetaceae  Horsetail Family
  Equisetum hyemale,  Common Scouring Rush
Ophioglossaceae  Adder's Tongue Fern Family
  Botrychium dissectum,  Cutleaf Grapefern
Botrychium virginianum,  Rattlesnake Fern
Pteridaceae  Brake Fern Family
  Adiantum pedatum,  Maidenhair Fern
Pellaea glabella,  Smooth Cliffbrake



Cupressaceae  Cypress Family
  Juniperus virginiana,  Red Cedar
Pinaceae  Pine Family

Pinus echinata,  Shortleaf Pine
Pinus strobus,  White Pine
Pinus taeda, Loblolly Pine
Pinus virginiana,  Virginia Pine

ANTHOPHYTA -- Flowering Plants

MAGNOLIIDS -- The earliest major branch of flowering plants

Lauraceae  Laurel Family
  Lindera benzoin,  Spicebush
Sassafras albidum,  Sassafras
Magnoliaceae  Magnolia Family
  Liriodendron tulipifera,  Tulip-Poplar
Magnolia acuminata,  Cucumber Tree
Aristolochiaceae  Birthwort Family
  Asarum canadense,  Wild Ginger
Hexastylis arifolia ,  Heartleaf, Wild Ginger



Alismataceae Water Plantain Family
  Alisma subcordatum,  Small Water Plaintain
Araceae  Aroid Family
  Arisaema triphyllum,  Jack-in-the-Pulpit


Dioscoreaceae Yam Family
  Dioscorea polystachya,  Cinnamon Vine, Chinese Yam
Dioscorea villosa,  Wild Yam
Liliaceae  Lily Family
  Chionodoxa forbesii, Glory-of-the-Snow
Erythronium americanum,  Yellow Trout Lily
Prosartes lanuginosa (Disporum lanuginosum),  Yellow Mandarin, Fairy Bells
Xanthorrhoeaceae  Grasstree Family
  Hemerocallis fulva,  Orange Day Lily
Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus (H. flava),  Yellow Day Lily
Asparagaceae  Asparagus Family
  Asparagus officinalis,  Asparagus
Convallaria majalis,  Lily-of-the-Valley
Maianthemum racemosum (Smilacina racemosa),  False Solomon's Seal
Ornithogalum umbellatum,  Star-of-Bethlehem
Polygonatum biflorum,  Smooth Solomon’s Seal
Uvularia grandiflora,  Large-flowered Bellwort
Uvularia perfoliata,  Perfoliate Bellwort
Hypoxidaceae  Stargrass Family
  Hypoxis hirsuta,  Yellow Stargrass
Melanthiaceae  Bunchflower Family
  Trillium grandiflorum,  Large-flowered Trillium
Amaryllidacaceae  Amaryllis Family
  Allium canadense,  Wild Onion or Field Garlic
Allium cernuum,  Nodding Onion
Allium vineale,  Wild Garlic
Narcissus poeticus,  Poet's Narcissus
Narcissus pseudonarcissus,  Daffodil
Smilacaceae  Greenbrier Family
  Smilax herbacea,  Carrion Flower
Smilax rotundifolia,  Common Greenbrier
Smilax tamnoides,  Catbrier or Bristly Greenbrier
Iridaceae  Iris Family
  Iris pseudacorus,  Yellow Iris
Sisyrinchium atlanticum,  Eastern Blue-eyed Grass
Orchidaceae  Orchid Family

Aplectrum hyemale,  Puttyroot or Adam-and-Eve
Goodyera pubescens,  Downy Rattlesnake Plantain
Liparis liliifolia, Lily-Leaved Twayblade
Spiranthes gracilis,  Slender Ladies-Tresses


Commelinaceae  Dayflower Family
  Commelina communis,  Asiatic Dayflower
Tradescantia ohiensis,  Ohio Spiderwort
Cyperaceae  Sedge Family

Carex albursina,  White Bear Sedge
Carex blanda,  Eastern Woodland Sedge
Carex digitalis,  Slender Wood Sedge
Carex granularis,  Limestone Meadow Sedge
Carex hirsutella,  Hairy Sedge
Carex hystericina,  Bottlebrush Sedge
Carex juniperorum ,  Juniper Sedge
Carex lurida,  Yellow-Green Sedge
Carex oligocarpa,  Richwoods Sedge
Carex pensylvanicus,  Pensylvania Sedge
Carex rosea, Curly-Styled Wood Sedge
Carex vulpinoidea
,  Fox Sedge
Carex willdenovii,  Willdenow’s Sedge
Cyperus esculentus,  Yellow Nutsedge
Cyperus flavescens,  Yellow Flatsedge
Cyperus lancastriensis,  Many-flowered Flatsedge
Cyperus strigosus,  Straw-Colored Flatsedge
Eleocharis compressa,  Flatstem Spikerush
Eleocharis erythropoda,  Bald Spikerush
Eleocharis tenuis,  Slender Spikerush
Scirpus atrovirens,  Green Bulrush
Scirpus pendulus,  Red or Nodding Bulrush

Juncaceae  Rush Family
  Juncus brachycephalus,  Small-Head Rush
Juncus dudleyi,  Dudley’s Rush
Juncus effusus,  Common Rush
Juncus inflexus,  Blue Rush
Juncus secundus,  Secund Rush
Poaceae  Grass Family

Agrostis gigantea,  Redtop
Andropogon gerardii,  Big Bluestem
Andropogon virginicus,  Broomsedge
Anthoxanthum odoratum,  Sweet Vernal Grass
Arthraxon hispidus,  Small Carpgrass
Bouteloua curtipendula,  Sideoats Grama
Bromus pubescens,  Hairy Woodland Brome Grass
Cynodon dactylon,  Bermuda Grass
Dactylis glomerata ,  Orchard Grass
Danthonia spicata,  Poverty Oatgrass
Dichanthelium clandestinum (Panicum clandestinum),  Deertongue
Digitaria ischaemum,  Smooth Crabgrass
Digitaria sanguinalis,  Crabgrass
Echinochloa crus-galli,  Barnyard Grass
Eleusine indica,  Goose Grass
Elymus riparius,  Riverbank Wild Rye
Elymus hystrix (Hystrix patula), Bottlebrush Grass
Eragrostis pectinacea,  Lovegrass
Festuca ovina ,  Sheep Fescue
Festuca subverticillata,  Nodding Fescue
Glyceria striata,  Fowl Manna Grass
Hordeum vulgare, Common Barley
Leersia oryzoides,  Rice Cutgrass
Leersia virginica,  White Grass
Microstegium vimineum, Nepalese Browntop or Japanese Stiltgrass
Muhlenbergia frondosa
,  Common Satin Grass
Muhlenbergia schreberi,  Nimblewill
Muhlenbergia sobolifera, Rock Muhly
Muhlenbergia sylvatica,  Woodland Muhly or Woodland Satin Grass
Muhlenbergia tenuiflora,  Slender Satin Grass
Panicum acuminatum,  Tufted Panic Grass
Panicum anceps,  Flatstem Panic Grass
Panicum boscii,  Bosc's Panic Grass
Panicum capillare,  Witch Grass
Panicum dichotomiflorum,  Fall Panic Grass
Panicum flexile,  Fall Witch Grass
Panicum linearifolium,  Linear-Leaved Panic Grass
Phleum pratense,  Timothy
Poa compressa,  Canada Bluegrass
Poa trivialis,  Rough Bluegrass
Schizachyrium scoparium,  Little Bluestem
Setaria faberi,  Nodding Foxtail
Setaria pumila,  Yellow Foxtail
Sorghastrum nutans,  Indian Grass
Sorghum halepense,  Johnson Grass
Sporobolus vaginiflorus,  Sheathed Dropseed
Tridens flavus,  Purpletop

Typhaceae, Cattail Family
  Typha latifolia,  Cattail




Berberidaceae  Barberry Family

Berberis bealei, Beale's Barberry
Berberis canadensis,  American Barberry
Berberis thunbergii,  Japanese Barberry
Caulophyllum thalictroides,  Blue Cohosh
Podophyllum peltatum,  Mayapple

Menispermaceae  Moonseed Family
  Menispermum canadense,  Canada Moonseed
Papaveraceae  Poppy Family
  Corydalis flavula,  Yellow Corydalis
Dicentra cucullaria,  Dutchman’s Breeches
Sanguinaria canadensis,  Bloodroot
Ranunculaceae  Buttercup Family
  Anemone quinquefoliaWood Anemone
Anemone virginiana,  Thimbleweed
Aquilegia canadensis,  Canada Columbine
Aquilegia vulgaris,  Garden Columbine
Cimicifuga racemosa,  Black Cohosh
Clematis viorna,  Leather Flower
Clematis virginiana,  Virgin's Bower
Delphinium exaltatum,  Tall Larkspur
Delphinium tricorne,  Dwarf Larkspur
Hepatica acutiloba,  Sharp-lobed Hepatica
Hepatica americana,  Round-lobed Hepatica
Ranunculus abortivus,  Small-Flowered or Kidney-Leaf Crowfoot
Ranunculus acris,  Tall Buttercup
Ranunculus hispidus,  Hispid Buttercup
Ranunculus recurvatus,  Hooked Crowfoot
Ranunculus repens,  Creeping Buttercup
Ranunculus septentrionalis,  Swamp Buttercup
Thalictrum dioicum,  Early Meadow Rue
Thalictrum polygamum,  Tall Meadow Rue
Thalictrum revolutum,  Waxy Meadow Rue
Thalictrum thalictroides,  Rue Anemone
Platanaceae  Sycamore Family
  Platanus occidentalis,  Sycamore


Chenopodiaceae  Goosefoot Family
  Chenopodium album,  Lamb’s Quarters
Caryophyllaceae  Pink Family
  Cerastium arvense,  Field Chickweed
Cerastium fontanum (C. vulgatum), Mouse-Ear Chickweed
Dianthus armeria,  Deptford Pink
Saponaria officinalis,  Bouncing Bet
Silene latifolia (Lychnis alba),  White Campion
Stellaria media,  Common Chickweed
Stellaria pubera,  Star Chickweed
Phytolaccaceae  Pokeweed Family
  Phytolacca americana,  Pokeweed
Polygonaceae  Buckwheat Family
  Fallopia scandens (Polygonum scandens),  Climbing False Buckwheat
Persicaria hydropiperoides (Polygonum hydropiperoides),  Mild Water Pepper
Persicaria maculosa (Polygonum persicaria),  Lady’s Thumb
Persicaria virginianum (Tovara virginianum),  Virginia Knotweed
Rumex acetosella,  Red or Sheep Sorrel
Rumex crispus,  Curled Dock
Rumex obtusifolius,  Bitter or Broad-Leaved Dock
Portulacaceae  Purslane Family
  Claytonia virginica,  Spring Beauty
Crassulaceae  Stonecrop Family
  Sedum ternatum,  Wild Stonecrop
  Telephium telephioides, (Sedum telephioides) Allegheny Stonecrop, Allegheny Live-Forever
Grossulariaceae  Gooseberry Family
  Ribes sp.,  Gooseberry
Hamamelidaceae  Witch Hazel Family
  Hamamelis virginiana,  Witch-Hazel
Saxifragaceae  Saxifrage Family
  Heuchera americana,  Alumroot
Mitella diphylla,  Miterwort
Tiarella cordifolia,  Foam Flower


Basal Rosids

Vitaceae,  Grape Family
  Parthenocissus quinquefolia,  Virginia Creeper
Vitis aestivalis,  Summer Grape
Geraniaceae,  Geranium Family

Erodium cicutarium , Redstem storksbill or Redstem filaree
Geranium carolinianum
, Carolina cranesbill
Geranium columbinum, Long-stalked cranesbill
Geranium maculatum
,  Wild Geranium
Geranium molle, Dovefoot Geranium
Geranium pusillum , Small geranium or Small-flowered cranesbill

Lythraceae, Loosestrife Family
  Cuphea viscosissima,  Blue Waxweed or Clammy Cuphea
Onagraceae,  Evening Primrose Family
  Circaea lutetiana,  Enchanter's Nightshade
Epilobium coloratum,  Purpleleaf Willowherb
Gaura biennis,  Biennial Gaura
Oenothera biennis,  Common Evening Primrose

Eurosids I

Celastraceae, Bittersweet Family
  Celastrus orbiculatus,  Asiatic or Oriental Bittersweet
Euonymus alatus,  Winged Spindle Tree
Cucurbitaceae, Squash Family
  Sicyos angulatus,  One-seeded Bur-Cucumber
Fabaceae, Pea Family
  Albizia julibrissin,  Mimosa or Silk Tree
Amorpha fruticosa,  Indigo Bush
Amphicarpa bracteata,  Hog Peanut
Cercis canadensis,  Redbud
Chamaecrista nictitans, Wild Sensitve Plant
Coronilla varia,  Crown Vetch
Desmodium glutinosum,  Pointed-Leaved Tick Trefoil
Desmodium perplexum,  Perplexing Tick Trefoil
Gleditsia triacanthos, Honey Locust
Kummerowia striata (Lespedeza striata),  Japanese Clover
Lathyrus latifolius,  Everlasting Pea
Lespedeza cuneata,  Chinese Bush Clover
Lespedeza procumbens,  Trailing Bush Clover
Medicago lupulina,  Black Medick
Melilotus albus,  White Sweet Clover
Melilotus officinalis,  Yellow Sweet Clover
Robinia pseudoacacia,  Black locust
Trifolium arvense,  Rabbit-Foot Clover
Trifolium campestre,  Low Hop Clover
Trifolium incarnatum,  Crimson clover
Trifolium pratense,  Red Clover
Trifolium repens,  White Clover
Vicia angustifolia,  Narrow-Leaved Vetch
Vicia caroliniana,  Carolina Vetch
Vicia sativa var. nigra,  Common Vetch
Polygalaceae, Milkwort Family
  Polygala senega,  Seneca Snakeroot
Betulaceae, Birch Family
  Carpinus caroliniana,  Ironwood, American Hornbeam or Blue Beech
Corylus americana,  American Hazelnut
Ostrya virginiana,  Hornbeam, Hop Hornbeam or Ironwood
Fagaceae, Beech Family
  Quercus alba,  White Oak
Quercus coccinea,  Scarlet Oak
Quercus muehlenbergii,  Yellow Chestnut Oak or Chinquapin Oak
Quercus prinus,  Chestnut Oak
Quercus rubra,  Red Oak
Quercus stellata,  Post Oak
Juglandaceae, Walnut Family

Carya cordiformis,  Bitternut Hickory
Carya ovata,  Shagbark Hickory
Juglans cinereaButternut or White Walnut
Juglans nigraBlack Walnut

Elaeagnaceae, Autumn Olive Family
  Elaeagnus umbellata,  Autumn Olive
Moraceae, Mulberry Family
  Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange
Morus rubra
,  Red Mulberry
Rhamnaceae, Buckthorn Family
  Ceanothus americanus,  New Jersey Tea
Rhamnus lanceolata,  Lanceleaf Buckthorn
Rosaceae, Rose Family
  Agrimonia gryposepalaAgrimony
Agrimonia parviflora,  Small-Flowered Agrimony
Amelanchier canadensis,  Shadblow or Canada Serviceberry
Chaenomeles japonica,  Japanese Quince
Crataegus sp., Hawthorn
Duchesnea indica,  Mock Strawberry
Fragaria virginiana,  Wild Strawberry
Geum canadense,  White Avens
Malus pumila,  Apple
Physocarpus opulifolius, Common Ninebark
Porteranthus trifoliatus
,  Bowman’s Root
Potentilla canadensis, Canada or Dwarf Cinquefoil
Potentilla norvegica
,  Rough or Norwegian Cinquefoil
Potentilla recta,  Sulfur Cinquefoil
Potentilla simplex,  Common Cinquefoil
Prunus avium,  Sweet Cherry
Prunus serotina,  Black Cherry
Rhodotypos scandens,  Jetbead
Rosa x, Hybrid or Cultivated Rose
Rosa carolina,  Carolina Rose
Rosa multiflora,  Multiflora Rose
Rubus allegheniensis,  Common Blackberry
Rubus flagellaris,  Northern Dewberry
Rubus occidentalis,  Black Raspberry
Rubus phoenicolasius,  Wineberry
Ulmaceae, Elm Family
  Celtis occidentalis,  American Hackberry
Ulmus pumila, Siberian Elm
Ulmus rubra,  Slippery Elm
Urticaceae, Nettle Family
  Boehmeria cylindrica,  False Nettle
Laportea canadensis,  Wood Nettle
Pilea pumila,  Clearweed
Urtica dioica,  Stinging Nettle
Euphorbiaceae, Spurge Family
  Acalypha virginica,  Virginia Copperleaf
Acalypha virginica var. rhomboidea, Three-Seeded Mercury
Chamaesyce nutans,  Eyebane or Nodding Spurge
Euphorbia commutata,  Woodland Spurge
Euphorbia corollata,  Flowering Spurge
Euphorbia cyparissias, Cypress Spurge
Euphorbia lathyris
,  Mole Plant
Hypericaceae, St. John's Wort Family
  Hypericum perforatum,  Common St. Johnswort
Hypericum prolificum,  Shrubby St. Johnswort
Hypericum punctatum,  Spotted St. Johnswort
Passifloraceae, Passionflower Family
  Passiflora lutea,  Yellow Passionflower
Salicaceae, Willow Family
  Populus alba,  White Poplar
Salix nigra,  Black Willow
Violaceae, Violet Family
  Hybanthus concolor,  Green Violet
Viola hastata,  Halberd-leaved Yellow Violet
Viola pubescens,  Downy Yellow Violet
Viola rafinesquii,  Wild Pansy
Viola sororia,  Common Blue Violet
Viola striata,  Pale Violet
Viola triloba,  Three-Lobed Violet
Oxalidaceae, Sorrel Family
  Oxalis grandis,  Great Wood Sorrel
Oxalis stricta,  Common Oxalis or Yellow Wood Sorrel

Eurosids II

Brassicaceae, Mustard Family
  Arabis laevigata,  Smooth Rockcress
Alliaria officinalis,  Garlic Mustard
Barbarea vulgaris,  Common Winter Cress
Capsella bursa-pastoris,  Shepherd’s Purse
Cardamine hirsuta,  Hairy Bitter Cress
Dentaria laciniata,  Cutleaf Toothwort
Hesperis matronalis,  Dame’s Rocket
Lepidium campestre,  Field Peppergrass
Lunaria annua,  Honesty
Nasturtium officinale,  Watercress
Rorippa sylvestris,  Creeping Yellow Cress
Malvaceae, Mallow Family
  Hibiscus syriacus,  Rose-of-Sharon
Malva neglecta,  Common Mallow
Sida spinosa,  Prickly Mallow
Tilia americana,  American Basswood
Anacardiaceae, Sumac Family

Rhus aromatica, Fragrant sumac
Rhus typhina,  Staghorn Sumac
Toxicodendron radicans,  Poison Ivy

Rutaceae, Citrus Family
  Ptelea trifoliata,  Hoptree
Sapindaceae, Soapberry Family

Acer campestre, Hedge Maple
Acer negundoBoxelder
Acer rubrum, Red Maple
Acer saccharinum,  Silver Maple
Acer saccharum,  Sugar Maple
Aesculus flava (A. octandra),  Sweet Buckeye

Simaroubaceae, Tree of Heaven Family
  Ailanthus altissima,  Tree-of-Heaven
Staphyleaceae, Bladdernut Family
  Staphylea trifolia,  Bladdernut


Basal Asterids

Cornaceae, Dogwood Family
  Cornus alternifolia,  Alternate-leaved Dogwood
Cornus amomum,  Silky Dogwood
Cornus florida,  Flowering Dogwood
Cornus kousa,  Kousa Dogwood
Hydrangeaceae, Hydrangea Family
  Hydrangea arborescens,  Wild Hydrangea
Balsaminaceae, Impatiens Family
  Impatiens capensis,  Spotted Jewelweed or Spotted Touch-Me-Not
Impatiens pallida ,  Pale Jewelweed or Pale Touch-Me-Not
Ebenaceae, Ebony Family
  Diospyros virginiana,  Persimmon
Ericaceae, Heath Family

Chimaphila maculata,  Striped or Spotted Wintergreen
Monotropa uniflora,  Indian Pipe
Rhododendron hybrid, Big-Flowered Rhododendron

Polemoniaceae, Phlox Family
  Gilia capitata,  Bluehead Gilia or Queen Anne's Thimbles
Phlox glaberrima,  Smooth Phlox
Primulaceae, Primrose Family
  Anagallis arvensis,  Scarlet Pimpernel
Lysimachia ciliata,  Fringed Loosestrife
Lysimachia nummularia,  Moneywort
Lysimachia quadrifolia,  Whorled Loosestrife

Euasterids I

Boraginaceae, Borage Family
  Cynoglossum virginianum,  Wild Comfrey
Echium vulgare,  Viper’s Bugloss
Hackelia virginiana,  Virginia Stickseed
Hydrophyllum virginianum,  Virginia Waterleaf
Lithospermum canescens,  Hoary Puccoon
Myosotis arvensis, Field Forget-Me-Not
Apocynaceae, Dogbane Family
  Apocynum cannabinum,  Hemp Dogbane
Asclepias incarnata,  Swamp Milkweed
Asclepias quadrifolia,  Four-leaved Milkweed
Asclepias syriaca,  Common Milkweed
Asclepias tuberosa,  Butterfly Weed
Asclepias verticillata,  Whorled Milkweed
Asclepias viridiflora,  Green Milkweed
Matelea obliqua, Climbing Milkvine
Vinca minor,  Periwinkle
Gentianaceae, Gentian Family
  Gentianella quinquefolia,  Stiff Gentian
Sabatia angularis,  Rose Pink or Bitterbloom
Rubiaceae, Madder Family
  Diodia teres,  Poorjoe
Galium aparine,  Cleavers
Galium asprellum,  Rough Bedstraw
Galium circaezans,  Wild Licorice
Galium verum,  Yellow Bedstraw
Houstonia caerulea,  Common Bluets
Houstonia tenuifolia,  Narrow-Leaved Houstonia
Mitchella repens,  Partridge Berry
Acanthaceae, Acanthus Family
  Ruellia strepens,  Wild Petunia
Bignoniaceae, Trumpet Creeper Family
  Campsis radicans,  Trumpet Creeper
Lamiaceae, Mint Family
  Clerodendrum trichotomum, Harlequin Glorybower
Clinopodium vulgare,  Wild Basil
Collinsonia canadensis,  Horse Balm
Glechoma hederaceaGround Ivy, Gill-Over-The-Ground
Lamium amplexicaule ,  Henbit
Lamium purpureum,  Purple Dead Nettle
Leonurus cardiacaMotherwort
Lycopus americanus,  Water Horehound
Lycopus uniflorus,  Northern Bugleweed
Mentha spicata,  Spearmint
Mentha X piperita,  Peppermint
Monarda clinopodia,  Basil Balm
Monarda didyma,  Bee Balm
Monarda fistulosa,  Wild Bergamot
Monarda media,  Purple Bergamot
Nepeta cataria,  Catnip
Nepeta racemosa (N. mussinii), Catmint
Prunella vulgaris,  Heal-All or Self-Heal
Pycnanthemum incanum,  Hoary Mountain Mint
Pycnanthemum tenuifolium,  Narrow-Leaved Mountain Mint
Salvia lyrata,  Lyre-Leaved Sage
Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap
Scutellaria nervosa,  Veined Skullcap
Scutellaria parvula (S. leonardii),  Small Skullcap
Scutellaria serrata,  Showy Skullcap
Stachys tenuifolia,  Common Hedge Nettle
Teucrium canadense,  American Germander
Trichostema brachiata (Isanthus brachiatus),  False Pennyroyal
Oleaceae, Olive Family
  Chionanthus virginicus,  Fringe Tree
Fraxinus americanaWhite Ash
Ligustrum vulgare,  Privet
Orobanchaceae, Paintbrush Family
  Aureolaria laevigata (Gerardia laevigata),  Entire-Leaved False Foxglove
Orobanche uniflora, One-Flowered Cancerroot
Paulowniaceae, Princess Tree Family
  Paulownia tomentosa,  Princess Tree
Phyrymaceae, Lopseed Family
Mimulus ringens,  Monkey Flower
Phryma leptostachya,  Lopseed
Plantaginaceae, Plantain Family

Linaria vulgaris,  Yellow Toadflax
Plantago lanceolata,  English Plantain
Plantago major, Broad-Leaved Plantain
Plantago rugelii
,  Black-Seeded Plantain
Plantago virginica, Dwarf Plaintain
Veronica anagallis-aquatica,  Water Speedwell
Veronica arvensis, Corn Speedwell
Veronica hederifolia,  Ivy-Leaved Speedwell
Veronica officinalis,  Common Speedwell
Veronica persica,  Persian Speedwell
Veronica serpyllifolia, Thyme-Leaved Speedwell

Scrophulariaceae, Figwort Family
  Buddleja davidii,  Orange Eye Butterflybush
Scrophularia marilandica,  Carpenter’s Square
Verbascum blattaria,  Moth Mullein
Verbascum thapsus,  Common Mullein
Verbenaceae. Vervain Family
  Verbena urticifolia,  White Vervain
Convolvulaceae, Morning Glory Family
  Calystegia spithamaea,  Upright Bindweed
Calystegia sepia (Convolvulus sepium),  Hedge Bindweed
Cuscuta gronovii, Common Dodder
Ipomoea hederacea,  Ivy-Leaved Morning Glory
Ipomoea lacunosa,  Small White Morning Glory
Ipomoea pandurata,  Wild Potato Vine
Ipomoea purpurea,  Common Morning Glory
Solanaceae, Nightshade Family
  Datura stramonium,  Jimson Weed
Physalis heterophylla,  Clammy Ground Cherry
Physalis longifolia var. subglabrata, Smooth Ground Cherry
Solanum carolinense,  Horse Nettle
Solanum dulcamara,  Bittersweet Nightshade
Solanum ptycanthum (S. nigrum),  Black Nightshade

Euasterids II

Aquifoliaceae, Holly Family

Ilex verticillata,  Winterberry Holly
Ilex opaca, American Holly

Apiaceae, Celery Family

Aegopodium podagraria,  Bishop's Goutweed
Carum carvi, Caraway
Conium maculatum
,  Poison Hemlock
Cryptotaenia canadensis,  Honewort
Daucus carota,  Queen-Anne’s-Lace
Ligusticum canadense,  Canada Lovage
Osmorhiza longistylis,  Aniseroot
Oxypolis rigidior,  Cowbane
Sanicula marilandica, Black Snakeroot
Sanicula odorata, Clustered Snakeroot
Taenidia integerrima,  Yellow Pimpernel
Zizia aptera,  Heart-Leaved Alexanders
Zizia aurea,  Golden Alexanders

Araliaceeae, English Ivy Family
  Hedera hibernica, Irish, Atlantic or English Ivy
Asteraceae, Sunflower Flower

Achillea millefolium,  Yarrow
Ageratina altissima (Eupatorium rugosum),  White Snakeroot
Ambrosia artemisiifolia,  Common Ragweed
Ambrosia trifida,  Giant Ragweed
Antennaria plantaginifolia,  Pussy-toes
Arctium minus,  Common Burdock
Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (Cacalia atriplicifolia),  Pale Indian Plantain
Artemisia vulgaris,  Mugwort
Bidens bipinnata,  Spanish Needles
Bidens cernua,  Nodding Bur-marigold
Bidens frondosa,  Devil’s Beggartick
Brickellia eupatorioides (Kuhnia eupatorioides),  False Boneset
Carduus nutans,  Nodding Thistle
Centaurea cyaneus,  Bachelor's-Button or Cornflower
Centaurea maculosa,  Spotted Knapweed
Centaurea nigrescens,  Tyrol or Short-Fringed Knapweed
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Leucanthemum  vulgare),  Oxeye Daisy
Chrysogonum virginianum,  Green-and-Gold or Goldenstar
Cichorium intybus,  Chicory
Cirsium arvense,  Canada Thistle
Cirsium discolor,  Field Thistle
Cirsium vulgare,  Bull Thistle
Conoclinium coelestinum (Eupatorium coelestinum), Blue Mistflower
Conyza canadensis,  Horseweed
Coreopsis lanceolata, Lanceleaf Coreopsis
Coreopsis major,  Greater Coreopsis
Crepis capillaris,  Smooth Hawksbeard
Erechtites hieracifolia,  Fireweed
Erigeron annuus,  Annual Fleabane
Erigeron philadelphicus,  Common Fleabane
Erigeron pulchellus,  Robin's Plantain
Erigeron strigosus,  Daisy Fleabane
Eupatorium fistulosum,  Joe-Pye Weed or Trumpetweed
Eupatorium perfoliatum,  Boneset
Eupatorium purpureum,  Sweet-Scented Joe-Pye Weed
Eupatorium serotinum, Late-flowering Thoroughwort, or Late Boneset
Eupatorium sessilifolium
,  Upland Boneset, Upland Thoroughwort
Eurybia divaricata (Aster divaricatus),  White Wood Aster
Eurybia schreberi (Aster schreberi),  Schreber's Aster
Galinsoga parviflora,  Quickweed or Gallant Soldier
Helenium autumnale,  Sneezeweed
Helianthus hirsutus,  Thin-Leaved Sunflower
Helianthus microcephalus,  Small Wood Sunflower
Helianthus strumosus,  Paleleaf Woodland Sunflower
Helianthus tuberosus,  Jerusalem Artichoke
Heliopsis helianthoides,  Oxeye or False Sunflower
Hieracium caespitosum (H. pratense),  Field Hawkweed
Hieracium pilosella,  Mouse Ear Hawkweed
Hypochoeris radicata (Hyopchaeris radicata),  Cat's Ear
Lactuca canadensis,  Wild lettuce
Lactuca serriola (L. scariola),  Prickly Lettuce
Lapsana communis,  Nipplewort
Leontondon autumnalis,  Autumn Dandelion
Liatris spicata,  Blazing Star or Gayfeather
Packera aurea  (Senecio aureus),  Golden Ragwort
Packera plattensis  (Senecio plattensis),  Prairie Ragwort
Polymnia canadensis,  Small-flowered leafcup
Prenanthes altissima,  Tall White Lettuce
Prenanthes trifoliata,  Tall Rattlesnake Root
Rudbeckia fulgida,  Shining Coneflower
Rudbeckia hirta,  Black-eyed Susan
Rudbeckia laciniata,  Green-headed Coneflower
Rudbeckia triloba,  Thin-Leaved Coneflower
Silphium perfoliatum,  Cup Plant
Silphium trifoliatum,  Whorled Rosinweed
Senecio vulgaris, Common groundsel
Solidago altissima,  Tall Goldenrod
Solidago arguta,  Sharp-Leaved Goldenrod
Solidago bicolor,  Silverrod
Solidago flexicaulis,  Broad-leaved Goldenrod
Solidago rugosa,  Rough-Stemmed Goldenrod
Solidago speciosa,  Showy Goldenrod
Solidago sphacelata,  Autumn or False Goldenrod
Solidago ulmifolia,  Elm-leaved Goldenrod
Sonchus arvensis, Field Sow Thistle
Symphyotrichum cordifolium (Aster cordifolius),  Heart-leaved Aster
Symphyotrichum laeve (Aster laevis),  Smooth Aster
Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Aster simplex),  Panicled Aster
Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (Aster lateriflorus),  Calico Aster
Symphyotrichum lowrieanum (Aster lowrieanus),  Lowry's Aster
Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (Aster novae-angliae),  New England Aster
Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (Aster novi-belgii),  New York Aster
Symphyotrichum pilosum (Aster pilosus),  Heath Aster
Symphyotrichum prenanthoides (Aster prenanthoides),  Crooked-Stem Aster
Symphyotrichum puniceum (Aster puniceus),  Purple-Stemmed Aster
Symphyotrichum undulatum (Aster undulatus),  Wavy-leaved Aster
Taraxacum officinale,  Common Dandelion
Tragopogon pratensis,  Yellow Goatsbeard
Tussilago farfara,  Coltsfoot
Verbesina alternifolia (Actinomeris alternifolia),  Wingstem
Verbesina occidentalis,  Yellow Crownbeard
Vernonia noveboracensis,  New York Ironweed
Xanthium strumarium,  Cocklebur

Campanulaceae, Bellflower Family

Campanula americana,  Tall Bellflower
Campanula rapunculoides,  Creeping Bellflower
Lobelia cardinalis,  Cardinal Flower
Lobelia inflata,  Indian Tobacco
Lobelia siphilitica,  Great Lobelia
Lobelia spicata,  Spiked Lobelia
Triodanis perfoliata (Specularia perfoliata),
Venus' Looking-Glass

Adoxaceae, Elderberry Family

Sambucus canadensis,  Common Elderberry
Viburnum plicatum,  Doublefile Viburnum
Viburnum prunifolium,  Smooth Blackhaw
Viburnum rhytidophyllum,  Leatherleaf Viburnum

Caprifoliaceae, Honeysuckle Family

Lonicera x bella, Bella Honeysuckle
Lonicera japonica,  Japanese Honeysuckle
Lonicera maackii,  Amur Honeysuckle
Lonicera morrowii,  Morrow Honeysuckle
Valerianella locusta,  European Corn Salad

Dipsacaceae, Teasel Family
  Dipsacus fullonum,  Teasel

last updated 1 July 2016

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